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The Endonasal DCR technique uses a fiberoptic probe inserted in the punctum for guidance. The light from the probe is visualized in the nose through a rigid nasal scope.

Endonasal DCR was first completed in 1958 with the use of a microscope, and later the procedure used endoscope systems and lasers. Recently, advanced approaches utilizing tissue damage, the preservation of mucosa and the creation of mucosal flaps. This, in most cases, has become a positive alternative to external DCR with comparable outcomes. Advantages over external DCR are avoidance of skin incision and scarring plus leaving medical canthal anatomy and lacrimal pump function intact. Post-operative pain is minimal and recovery time is short.

F. Codere and D.W. Rossman – Primary Endonasal DCR. Springer, 2006

An instructional CD created by François Codère, MD is available upon request